Every male has a single Y chromosome that is inherited from his natural father. Thus, all men in a father-to-son paternal line have an identical Y chromosome (except for random mutations that occur on the average of every 500 generations). Laboratories can analyze the Y chromosome by counting markers at specific locations. This results in a sequence of numbers called a “haplotype.” If two men are found to have identical or very similar haplotypes, it indicates that they have a common ancestor in their paternal lines. For example, a Long in Delaware is tested and found to match a Long in Texas and a Long in Ireland. These Longs can then conclude that they are all descended from a common Long ancestor. It is also possible to estimate the number of generations back to this most recent common ancestor.
In addition to Y-DNA testing, there are two other types of DNA testing used for genealogy. They are mtDNA testing and Autosomal testing. These tests can be taken by females and males. The Long Surname DNA Project is primarily intended for Longs that have taken or wish to take a Y-DNA test.
Click here to see what a DNA Test Kit looks like.
For a short course in DNA and genetic genealogy, Click Here to go to DNA 101 at the acclaimed Blair Surname DNA Project website. Also, Family Tree DNA has Beginners Guide to Genetic Genealogy at https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/dna-basics/.
How Much Does It Cost?
The regular group rate for a Y-DNA test is: $49 for the 12-marker test, $124 for the 25-marker test, $149 (~ £96.4) for the 37-marker test (recommended), $239 for the 67-marker test and $339 for the 111-marker test. Check with the Group Administrator is see if any specials are in effect.